Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Rise in Islamophobia in Social Work Practice-Case Study
Question: Analyse the impact of the current governments welfare reforms on disability and service user involvement. Drawing on critical race theory analyse the rise in Islamaphobia in social work practice. Explore the ways that hegemonic masculinities influences mens involvement in social work practice. Answer: Introduction Over the past decades, Islamophobia has developed or emerged as one of the hottest topics of debate in the entire world (Davids, 2009). Alongside the rise of anti-Roma racism and the increasing rates of attacks in context with the multiculturalism, Urh (2014) drew attention towards the growth of Islamophobia which has become quite a vital subject of discussion that made the theorists and the scholars critically research and assess the role of anti-Islam in the social work practices in the 21st century. Islamophobia is referred to as the hatred or prejudice against the Muslims or Islam. This paper strongly highlights how the Muslim identity and the latest social practices affect the well being and health of the Muslims in almost all the countries of the world (Esposito and Kaln, 2011). The causes and specialities of the Islamophobia are still not well known and are under debate. In the opinion of some scholars, it has been identified that Islamophobia is a type of cultural racism. Whi le the others have commented that this phobia against the Muslims has developed due to the most terrible and horrified terrorist attacks of September 11 and July 7 (Hafez, 2009). The fear and anxiety that the terror attacks posed on the minds and lives of the people all over the world has led them to turn their faces against the Muslims and prevent them from taking part in any social work practices of the country (Gottschalk and Greenberg, 2008). For over several years, it has been observed that there is a constant increase of hostility and antagonism towards the Islam communities in UK, US, France, etc and Islamophobia has come into view as a definite form of the modern anti-Muslim racism (Hussain, 1992). Researchers and sociologists have aimed at defining Islamophobia in detail but the essence and significance of the term is very much alike. An exaggerated anxiety or terror against the Muslims and Islam has developed a feeling of hatred among the people of the Western countries towards their community (Lyons, 2012). Making anti-Muslim racism respectable continues to be a most important and significance trend all over UK. Any Muslim person found on the streets is being either shot or imprisoned for lifetime due to fear. Islamophobia tends to range from the condescending and contemptuous stares and comments to the physical assaults of the Muslim residents in the country. The government policies of the country have prevented M uslims to get associated in the social work practices. Any Muslim citizen, whose actions and attitudes are deemed to be suspicious, will be considered as criminals and strict actions will be taken against that individual (Love, 2011). In this particular essay, spotlight will provided on the rise of Islamophobia in the entire UK and the existing racial discrimination according to the critical race theory and how this has affected the involvement of the Muslims in the social work practices. Main analysis of the paper In todays world, terrorism is often equated with Islam. The very name of Islam is a real taboo in the society (Field, 2011). Although the researchers have firmly focused or emphasised on the social work practices with the Black and minority ethnic (BME) people, the involvement of the Muslims in the social work remains particularly neglected. They are very much feared by the British populations due to the terror attacks which caused severe damage and hampered many innocent lives. As per the opinions of Rana (2007), the situation of the Muslim populations is thus considered as one of the most suppressing issues that British society is facing in the current times. The increasing number of attacks on the Muslim community in UK has led to the rise in threats towards the civil liberation in context with the security measures in the country. According to the viewpoints of Poynting and Mason (2007), the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and the successive war on terrorism have laid a c onsiderable impact on the Muslims in many Western countries such as Australia, US and UK. The Muslims feel bad about the fact that the English society in which they live in does not really accept them as a part of their community. Islam is regarded as the second most identified religion in UK behind Christianity. Quite a large area in Britain society is comprised of the Muslims (Sayyid, 2010). According to the statistical reports, the Muslims occupy nearly 5% of the population in England but the majority resided in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Surprisingly, the Muslims do not have any ancestral roots in the Arab countries. It has been perceived that the British worry about their families and friends. They just do not seem to empathise with the Muslims. Bryfonski (2012) opined that a vast majority of the British feel that Islamophobia is hateful and disgusting. As revealed by Fekete (2009), there were 115 attacks in a week after the disastrous terrorist attacks in Paris. Due to such, the anger and hatred of the British people towards the Muslim populations outpoured and as a result, they have declared firmly that they will not tolerate Islamophobia in the country. With the growth and development of the critical rac e theory, UK has targeted the Muslims and has aimed at punishing them and avoiding them so as to ensure their well being in the society (Traditional Islamic Principles of Built Environment, 2002). The rising wave of Islamophobia has made the integration with the Muslims less likely and the fear intensifies the perspectives and perceptions of the extremists (Abbas and Awan, 2015). This is quite discordant and dangerous and poses a great threat to the lives of the British. They feel that it has become quite hard for them to live in the country always with fear and anxiety. They cannot live fearlessly; their well being is in danger because of the huge Muslim population in UK. Asad (1997) stated that the concept of Islamophobia is commonly used to distinguish the expressions, speech and actions of terror and anxiety towards the Muslims or those who believe in the Islamic religion. By virtue of Khan (2012), irrespective of the fact whether the term Islamophobia is used as the anti-Muslim hostility or as racial discrimination towards the Islam culture, an in-depth analysis and review of the term is very much required in order to find out the specific significance and relevance to th e term phobia. The so-called conflicts and clashes between the British and the Islam have burst out on the front pages of the English newspapers (Hussain, 1992). Media reports and the legislative actions often cited the 9/11 and 7/7 attacks and focused on the Muslims as an external group thereby leading to the promotion of the negative stereotypes of the cultures of Muslims. The Islam communities in the UK are noticeably distinctive in terms of their culture, historical characteristics, languages as well as ethnicity. Due to such diversity, the Muslims are treated ignorantly in UK. This differentiation in the race and culture has led the Muslims to suffer a lot in the country. As per the opinions of Lewis (2014), the political and legal practices of UK are widely against the Islam culture. It has also been perceived that in Britain, about 75% of the Muslims of Pakistan in UK tend to marry their close relatives (Love, 2011). The researchers have questioned this entire practice and have raised their fingers against their culture. Research shows that the terrorist incidents have worsened the well being of UK over the past five years. The entire British society has emerged as a strong united community that stands against the Islam culture (Moaddel, 2007). This anti-Islamic racism has led the Muslims in Britain suffer from identity crisis. The issue of racism is one of the major and most worrisome topics in the UK society. In the current society, the most substantial segregation might not be in terms of the ethnic and racial lines. In the words of Martin (2010), the modern-day globalization has led to shift the attention of the people in the rising nature of racism where the Muslims are portrayed as the wicked or threatening culture. The researchers have widely depicted the resurrection of the anti-Islam racism is the direct result of the war on terror (Williams, 2010). It is quite imperative that the concept of war on terrorism is actually an attempt to manage and control the resources of the country. The recent voting polls have resulted that the immigration of the Muslims is considered as one of the third most discussed issue for the British people (Gallup, 2016). Holloway (2008) opined that after the issues of the 9/11 and 7/7 attacks, the religion, race and migration of the Muslims have become the centre of attention among the English people. With a purpose of avoiding the fear of terrorism, checking of the people at the airports, railway stations, shopping centres, schools, etc. has been regarded as of vital importance (Vakil, 2009). The government of the country has given permission to all the schools and the universities to check over and report about any suspicious activity from any Muslim individual. Toguslu, Leman and Sezgin (2013) overviewed that children and the women are very much prone to such threats and are largely affected when they are targeted due to Islamophobic abuses and attacks. Hence they are concerned with the general growth of discrimination. According to the opinion of Allen (2016), Islamophobia is a perfect threat to give rise to social cohesion. This practice or prejudice in the British society appears to be racial prejudice and cultural discrimination. It cannot be dealt with the external context of racism and discrimination in all over Europe (Sayyid and Vakil, 2010). The religious beliefs, values, perceptions, behaviours, attitudes, cultures, lifestyles, habits, language and appearance of the Muslims are considered to be violence and risk for the British. Peace (2012) has thereby argued by stating that though these Islamic people are looked down upon or feared in the British society, yet they have widely contributed for the welfare and betterment of the country. In accordance with the viewpoints of Awan (2016) and many other sociologists, the Muslim communities have also shared meaningful cultural world views in regards to the illnesses and their treatments. The physicians believing in Islamic religion have played a pivotal role in protecting and adapting the Greco-Arabic medicines to the Western part of Europe. But even after that, the English media have continuously highlighted the consequences of the terror attacks caused on September 11 and July 7 that led the British to consider the Muslims as criminals (Allen, 2016). Though the Muslims want to make a strong and permanent alliance with the British, the latter do not feel like stay connected with the Islam due to the fear of the past terrorist attacks. As a matter of fact, Awan (2016) commented that the Muslims do not get any sort of help or cooperation from any English inhabitant. The country-jihad movement of UK is broadening and spreading its branches across the entire Europe which reflects that about 24 different far-right groups have aimed at thumping up strong feeling of hatred and negligence towards the Muslim population (Abbas and Awan, 2015). Thus a racial civil war has been provoked in the society. Fekete (2009) has opined that UK has stood up extremely against the Islam religion and the phobia and tensions against the Muslims has thus increased considerably over their immigration. In context with the social work perspective, it can be said that in the European countries the people tend to neglect the Muslim social workers and ignore their services due to the anti-Islam feeling (Ragab, 2016). The good works and the skills of the Muslim people are not even acknowledged or recognised by the Western culture as they cannot rely upon them. Vakil (2009) has shed light upon the fact that these people do not accept the services of the Muslim social workers who work with great toil to earn their livelihood in the European countries. According to the viewpoints of Davids (2009), since the fear and anxiety against the Islamic religion and their race has left a deep adverse impact on the minds of the people of the European countries that they are not ready to accept the goodness and positive attitudes of the Islamic people. The people believing in the Western culture do not actually feel comfortable to get socialised and stay connected to any Muslim immigrant (Nabi, 2011). On the other hand, it has been perceived that the Muslim people do not get adequate social benefits from the European society. Naqvi and Smits (2011) have highlighted the fact that due to this fear and Islamophobic prejudice, their needs and necessities are being significantly ignored or neglected by the social care workers of UK. Thus many Muslim men, women and children in the country are found to be deprived of getting any kind of care treatment and safety or protection measures (Nesser, 2014). Acknowledging the current UK society, Allen (2010) has stated that it is absolutely impossible to detach racism of the country from the past terror incidents. The country has been very much specific and particular in terms of their ethnic and religious values. Anti-Islamic practices are not different in UK from the other countries (Gottschalk and Greenberg, 2008). Same fear, anxiety, tension, risks and bogeymen have caused significant negative violence, attitudes and resentment in almost all the countries of the world. It has been observed by Imhoff and Recker (2012) that due to such terror, the Muslims are not allowed to take part in any activity of the society. They are even suffering from severe unemployment and are deprived of any kind of social, economic or political benefits. Since the cultures of Muslims do not tally with that of UK, the perceived incompatibility between their cultures has led the non-Muslim people of the country stay away from them (Laitin, 2010). Morgan and Poynting (2011) have commented that in almost all the Western countries of the world, the Muslims are being prevented from moving about in the streets freely as per their will. The young children are being taught not to socialise or stay in touch with the Muslim children at schools or universities. This social rejection has made it quite difficult for the Muslim communities to survive and stay in peace in UK and other European countries (Field, 2011). The hate preachers, that is, the media or the press has indeed increased this anti-Islamic motto in the society and thus the Muslims are being treated brutally in the country. As per the opinions of Bryfonski 92012), the rate of Muslim imprisonment is much higher than that of the non-Muslims. Also it has been noticed that the people believing in Islamic religion are not accepted as general citizens of the country. All these factors show the real fear among the people that has rooted up in their hearts and occupied a large por tion of their minds since the 9/11 attacks (Holloway, 2008). The fundamentalists of Islam have spoiled or ruined the public image of the Muslims in all over UK and thus it has created a tense situation in the society. In the words of Urh (2014), these terror strikes which are carried out by the fanatics of racial discrimination and anti-Islam on the soil of UK have brightened and broadened the International headlines and escalate the issue to a wide extent. After the September 11 attack, the government of UK has made an attempt to introduce certain policies that will help the British people to overcome their fear of the Muslims (Gottschalk and Greenberg, 2008). But the government initiatives such as the anti-terrorism legislations failed to ease the anxieties of the people. Williams (2010) anticipated that some Muslim individuals feel a certain extent of cultural alienation. In contrary to these, it has been also perceived that the Muslims have developed a sense of humanism within themselves. Moreover, Islam has proved to be extensively dynamic by adapting to the non-Islam culture to diverse themselves from the Islamic society (Vakil, 2009). While reviewing the opinions of some Muslims, it has bee n perceived that they are not respected by the people of UK and other European countries. (Ragab, 2016) has overviewed that the perceived inequalities between the European and Muslim cultures have resulted in racism and class division. According to the Durkheims theory of socialism, people tend to envisage religion as a firm contribution to the betterment and welfare of the society. Thus in this respect it can be said that the British people respect and socialise with those people who share common religious values and beliefs (Rana, 2007). In case of Webers theory of social change, the western culture or Christians are believe that God will punish all those who are sinful and have caused harm to the innocents (Martin, 2010). With such belief, the Christians are quite likely to consider the Muslims as the sinful as they have created terror in the minds and hearts of all the people of all the European countries including UK. Hence as stated by Peace (2012), the fundamental aim of the people of these western countries is to remove negative aspects from the society to promote their well being and bring in peace. As a matter of fact, the people have continued their struggles against the Muslims and thus racial discrimination has escalated immensely in the British society. Nabi (2011) has underpinned his thoughts by saying that the dominance and oppression of the British government towards the Islamic communities in UK and other European countries has forced the latter to stay isolated from the others. Moaddel (2007) overviewed that the culture and religion has grown over extensively than politics almost across all the regions. It has been surveyed by Hafez (2009) and several researchers and theorists that these racial differences are the root causes behind the tensions between the Western world and the Muslims. This has become quite a significant conversation or debate about Islamophobia which embodies that the political and social interests of the people of both the religions might vary considerably, yet their religious and cultural differences are more entrenched within the people (Laitin, 2010). On the basis of one of the five pillars of Islam, it can be explained that the differences in the Islamic notion of charity to that of the Christians thoro ughly showcased that the former has been specifically designed in order to serve the true cause of social justice. On the other hand, Allen (2016) has shed light upon the fact that in Christianity, the concept of charity is completely based on compensation where the recipients will have no right to donation rather than reflecting a feeling of grace for the donor (Lean and Esposito, 2012). In Islamic society, the poorer class of people have the right to claim donation from the wealthier class of people in the society and as such the well being of the society is ensured. In contrast, Imhoff and Recker (2012) have explained in their opinions that the UK society has developed a strong feeling of hatred towards the Muslims and due to such, the British has decided not to socialise with them. The rising questions of gender and cultural identity of the Muslims in Britain have led to the increasing levels of Islamophobia and affected the lives of many Muslim women (Khan, 2012). The levels of racism have thus rooted up significantly in the UK society and other European countries. The practice of covering t he heads of the Muslim women shows the refusal or rejection of the British towards them (Lyons, 2012). It reflects that they see the Muslim women as a part of a complex historical progression trying to form their identity. According to the viewpoints of Poynting and Mason (2007), due to such circumstance, these women are being criticised and abused very badly by the western culture for not accepting the fact that they can only achieve their freedom by agreeing with the inferiority of their own culture. The significant relationship between racialisation and Islamophobia can be highlighted by making an argument that before experiencing Islamophobia in UK and other European countries, the white people converted into Islam are again racialised as non-white religion (Sayyid, 2010). Many Muslims also fail to comprehend the true meaning of Islamophobia as they might have hardly experienced it. Thus it has been claimed by Toguslu, Leman and Sezgin (2015) that Islamophobia is just a myth or belief that has engraved in the hearts of the people of almost all the Western countries including UK. As indicated by Imhoff and Recker (2012), the racial and cultural differences that the Muslim immigrants brought in Europ e along with them are considered as the most vital obstacle towards their integration. Due to the fear existed among the people; it is quite obvious that they will never want to assimilate or mix up with the Muslims (Traditional Islamic Principles of Built Environment, 2002). This observed disconnection between the Muslim immigrants and the British people are also a very subjective issue that has been argued so as to prevent or minimise the immigration of the Muslims from the countries which comprise of a predominant Muslim population (Urh, 2014). In the European society, when the Muslims are exposed or depicted as a complicated and problematic group of people, they are frequently conversed with respect to their families which viewed the women, children and youths as the cultural prisoners. Nesser (2014) has drawn attention towards the fact that the youths believing in the Islam religion are considered to be posing the most significant threat to the society supposedly due to their different cultural beliefs and values. The young Muslim men are portrayed in the European society as a disturbing element (Lewis, 2014). It is inferred that these people need to be unveiled and empowered due to the pressure of their familys traditional and social relations. Conclusion From the entire study, it can be broadly depicted that the Muslims are thoroughly ignored and avoided in the Western society. They are deprived of their human rights and are always criminalised under the European Law due to mere suspicion (Morgan and Poynting, 2011). No approval is being given to these Muslim immigrants in schools, colleges or in any public and private sector. The overall analysis of this paper has enlightened the true aspect and significance of Islamophobia that has rooted up firmly in the minds and hearts of the people of UK and other European countries. It is opined by Naqvi and Smits (2011) that the well being and betterment of the European countries has been hampered and ruined due to the terrorist attacks of the Muslims. According to Monshipouri (2011), Islamophobia among the people belonging to the western culture, aim at violating or preventing the Muslim individuals from their rights and freedom. Islamophobia is considered to be an analytical term that is wi dely tackled by the scantiness of its current formulation. The paper identified that the prejudice of Islamophobia tends to irritation and arise complexities without facilitating any kind of elucidation. Hence as per the opinion of Imhoff and Recker (2012), rallies have been organized in the European countries in order to emphasise upon throwing away or preventing the entry of Muslim immigrants. Stop the Islamisation of Europe has been the one of the most significant rally in the entire Europe so as to showcase their affirmation towards the anti-Islamic race. The rise in terror among the people of UK and other European countries due to the terrorist attacks in US has extensively led to the emergence of Islamophobia among the people (Vakil, 2009). The media and press play a pivotal role in highlighting the anti-Islam concept every day. The European Muslims are almost regularly represented in the English media as criminals or untrustworthy groups of people who are subjected to the divided loyalties (Toguslu, Leman and Sezgin, 2015). Thus it ca n be said that Islamophobia has resulted in racial discrimination and also it affected the social work practices of the countries significantly. 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